Ancestry DNA Testing
Ancestry DNA Testing, How is it conducted?Ancestry DNA testing is very simple and easy. A DNA kit is sent to you. You take out a swab and gently scrape the inside of your cheeks, put scraping in provided vial, put vial in return packaging and send package back to lab. You will then get your results back in 3 to 4 weeks.
Types of Ancestry DNA testingThere are three types of genealogical DNA tests, autosomal (atDNA), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and Y-Chromosome (Y-DNA). Autosomal tests for all ancestry. Y-DNA tests a male along his direct paternal line. mtDNA tests a man or woman along their direct maternal line. We will focus on two types of Ancestry DNA testing, Paternal DNA Testing (yDNA) and Maternal DNA testing (mtDNA). The mother passes on mitochondria (mtDNA) to her children, sons and daughters, while the father passes the yDNA only to his sons. A male can be tested for both paternal yDNA and Mitochondria (mtDNA) DNA test, while the female can only be tested for the Maternal, Mitochondria test (mtDNA). So from a family point of view, if the Father and Mother take the appropriate DNA test, their results can be used for the whole family. If the Father or Mother DNA is not available to take the appropriate test, then the daughter or son of the family could provide all of the necessary information to do DNA genetic research for the family. Likewise, a brother or sister of the family can share their information with the rest of the family. With Family DNA Roots you can have your Ancestry DNA testing performed for your whole family at one low price by purchasing the Family Ancestry DNA test kit.
Autosomal DNA: 22 chromosome pairs
- Each parent passes on a random half of their 22 pairs
- (1 copy of each) to each offspring.
- Each offspring will have different set of half. Part of ‘Nuclear’ DNA
Gender DNA: X and Y pair together
Sex chromosomes, part of ‘Nuclear’ DNA
- Males are determined by the fact that they have and “X” and a “Y”
- Females are determined by the fact that they have 2 “X” (“XX”) and no “Y”
- Just like the autosomal DNA, each parent give a random half of one of these
- to each offspring. The mother can only pass on an “X”, but the father either
- passes on the “X” OR the “Y”. The “X” means child will be female and “Y” male.
- Male sons will pass the same “Y” copy onto their sons, and so on.
- The Y chromosome is small, does not really mix with the X and thus does not experience frequent mutations.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA): Independent
- Human cells have organelles called mitochondrion that produce energy.
- These organelles have their own DNA independent of rest of Nuclear DNA.
- Female ‘eggs’ contain all the cellular material needed, including mitochondrion.
- Sperm contain ONLY DNA, no mitochondrion.
- So mtDNA gets passed ONLY from mother to daughter or son.
- Daughters will in turn pass it on to children, sons will not.
- mtDNA is small, does not mix with anything, has a lot information on in, and So does not experience frequent mutations.
A designation used to describe ancestral history of Y chromosome and mtDNA. Each letter and location represents where human migration/settlements and corresponding DNA mutations are estimated to have occurred thousands of years ago.
What do you receive with your Family DNA Testing results?When you receive your kit, you will receive access to your DNA information through a website provided by Family DNA Roots, a certificate displaying your haplogroup, and a certificate displaying your World Wide Ancestry composition. On the website, you will be provided with information about your yDNA and mtDNA haplogroups. A haplogroup is a classification of where you are mapped in the human tree. It looks similar to a tree with the tree trunk being the base and the branches spanning out from the base of the tree. There are haplogroup classifications for both the Maternal and Paternal designations. The haplogroup are labeled using a combination of letters and numbers. For the paternal the 'A' haplogroup is at the root and for the Maternal the 'L0' halopgroup is at the root. The root haplogroups are classified as Scientific Adam and Scientific Eve. Everyone can trace their roots to these two haplogroup types.
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